How to Make a Solar Cell

The use of solar energy is on the rise all over the world.

In some countries, such as Germany, almost a third of all electricity is generated by solar power.

The cost of solar energy has also been dropping steadily in recent years, making it an increasingly attractive option for homeowners and businesses.

Despite this growth, solar energy still only provides a tiny fraction of the world’s power.

However, as technology improves and more people become aware of the environmental benefits of solar power, that is likely to change.

Make Your Solar Cell at Home – Here Is a Humble Guide!

What Is Solar Cell

A solar cell, also called a photovoltaic cell, is a device that converts light into electrical energy.

Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. When light strikes the cell, it causes electrons to be knocked loose from the atom. These free electrons flow through the material to form an electric current.

Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. They are also used in large power plants, where they convert sunlight into electricity that can be fed into the power grid. Today, many homes also have roof solar panels. 

how to make solar cell

How Are Solar Cells Being Made Industrially

Solar cells are made of two layers of semiconductor material, usually silicon. 

In fact, it is the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust after oxygen. Silicon can be found in sand, which is why it is sometimes called silica.

The top layer of the cell has a positive charge, while the bottom layer has a negative charge. When light hits the cell, it causes electrons to be knocked loose from the atoms in the silicon.

The electrons flow from the negatively charged bottom layer to the positively charged top layer. This creates an electric current that can be harnessed to power devices or even homes and businesses.

Solar cells are usually combined into larger units called modules or panels. A typical panel contains about 40 cells and can generate enough electricity to power a small home.

The Process of Making Solar Cells In the Industry

Solar cells are made of silicon, which is a very common element. 

To make a solar cell, silicon is first purified and then made into a single crystal. This process is called crystallization. The silicon crystal is then cut into thin wafers.

The next step is to add impurities to the silicon. This is done by exposing the wafers to chemicals that change the electrical properties of the silicon. The type of impurity added determines whether the resulting solar cell will be a positive or negative type.

After the impurities have been added, the wafers are exposed to light. This creates an electric field within the silicon crystal. The strength of the electric field determines the power output of the solar cell.

The final step is to connect the solar cell to an external circuit. This allows the current generated by the solar cell to be used to power devices or even homes and businesses.

Solar cells are usually made into modules or panels. A typical panel contains about 40 cells and can generate enough electricity to power a small home.

How to Make a Solar Cell at Home

Yes, you can use some items that are found around the house, or can be purchased in a nearby hardware store, to make yourself a solar cell at home.

Items such as pennies, aluminum foil, and glass jars can be used to create a working solar cell. By using these materials, you can create a solar cell that will convert sunlight into a tiny amount of electrical energy.

make a solar cell

Making your own solar cell may seem like a daunting task, but with the right instructions it can be easy and fun. In this guide, we will walk you through the process of making a solar cell from start to finish!


Make a Solar Cell Using Solar Cell Film

The first step is to gather the materials you will need. 


A sheet of conductive glass:

There are a few places where you can find a sheet of conductive glass for your home DIY solar cell project. One place you can find it is on Amazon. Another place is at a hardware store. You might also be able to find it at a science supply store.

A sheet of non-conductive glass:

A sheet of non-conductive glass can be found at most hardware stores. It is typically used for electrical applications.

A solar cell film:

One option is to purchase the film from a hardware store or online retailer. Another option is to make your own solar cell film by using materials that are readily available.

A piece of copper wire:

One of the best places to find a piece of copper wire for your DIY project of making a solar cell at home is at a hardware store. You can typically find copper wire at the hardware store in the electrical section. Be sure to ask an employee at the store for help finding the right type of copper wire for your project.


There are a few different places you can find solder for a DIY solar cell project. One option is to purchase it from a store that specializes in electronics, such as RadioShack or an online store like Mouser Electronics. Another option is to order it from a supplier like Jameco Electronics or Digi-Key. Finally, you can salvage it from old electronics that are being thrown away. Just be sure to clean the solder before using it for your project.

A soldering iron:

There are a few places you can find a soldering iron for a DIY solar cell project. One option is to check with your local hardware store. Another place to look is online at retailers like Amazon or eBay. Be sure to read the reviews before purchasing to make sure you are getting a quality product.


Once you have all of your materials, the next step is to cut the conductive glass and the non-conductive glass to the same size.

Next, you will need to attach the solar cell film to the conductive glass. To do this, you will need to use the copper wire and solder.

Once the solar cell film is attached to the conductive glass, you will need to sandwich the non-conductive glass on top of it. Finally, you will need to solder the edges of the glass together in order to seal it.

And that’s it! You now have your very own solar cell. Now all you need to do is find a sunny spot to put it and enjoy the free electricity.

For the ones that want to make make your own solar cell film from the available materials, Here’s a little guide on that part:

Make Your Own Solar Cell Film

Solar cells are made from a thin film of photovoltaic material. This material is typically sandwiched between two conductive plates, which allows for the transfer of electricity.

You can make your own solar cell film using some basic materials that you may have around the house. To make your own solar cell film, you will need the following…



A sheet of conductive material (copper or aluminum foil will work)

A sheet of non-conductive material (plastic wrap or wax paper will work)

A sheet of photovoltaic material (you can purchase this online or at a local electronics store)




First, cut your conductive and non-conductive materials into small squares.

Then, cut your photovoltaic material into even smaller squares.

Next, sandwich a piece of photovoltaic material between two pieces of the other material (conductive on one side, non-conductive on the other).

Tape the three layers together, making sure that the photovoltaic material is in contact with both the conductive and non-conductive materials.

Repeat this process until you have made enough solar cell film to meet your needs. You can then use this film to create solar panels or other photovoltaic devices. 

The solar cell that you can create with this DIY solar cell film is perfect for demonstration and easy to make. But it doesn’t provide a great amount of electricity. 

To learn how to make a more demanding and higher quality DIY solar cell which will show the voltage of around 0.5 volts, read on.

How to Make a Solar Cell with High Output


Materials you will need:

Solar Cell Material:

Solar cells can be made from a variety of materials. The most common type of solar cell is made from silicon. However, other materials, such as copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe), are also used to make solar cells. 

The best place to find solar cell material for a DIY project is online. There are many websites that sell solar cells and other solar-related products. Another option is to purchase a kit that contains all of the necessary materials to build a solar cell. These kits are usually available online or at local home improvement stores.

Copper wire:

Again, you can find it at a hardware store.

Tin solder:

You can find tin solder at most hardware stores. Make sure to get solder that is specifically for soldering electronics- it will have a lower melting point and be easier to work with. If you’re having trouble finding tin solder, you can also use lead-free solder. Lead-free solder has a higher melting point, so it may be more difficult to work with, but it will still get the job done. You can find lead-free solder at most hardware stores or online.

Solder flux:

There are many different types of solder flux, so it can be a little tricky to find the right one. However, online retailers such as Amazon often have a good variety of flux products available. In general, you want to find a solder flux that is specifically designed for the type of metal you are using. One popular type of solder flux is rosin flux. Rosin flux is made from the resin of pine trees, and it works well for most metals. However, it can be a little more difficult to clean off than other types of flux. Another type of flux that is popular for solar cell projects is water-soluble flux. This type of flux is easy to clean up with water, making it a good choice if you are not comfortable using chemicals. Finally, no-clean flux is another option that is available. This type of flux does not need to be cleaned off, as the residue is not harmful. However, it can be more difficult to work with, as it can be messy.

Paint brush:

You can find a variety of paint brushes at hardware stores or online. When selecting a paint brush for a DIY solar cell project, it is important to choose one that has stiff bristles so that it can easily apply the paint or solder to the solar cell surface.

Diagonal cutters: 

Diagonal cutters can be found at most hardware stores.

Needle nose pliers:

Needle nose pliers can be found at most hardware stores. They are typically used for small, delicate tasks, like jewelry making or electrical work. For a DIY project of making a solar cell at home, you’ll need needle nose pliers to help you fold the solar cells properly. Make sure to get a pair with good grip, so you don’t accidentally drop and break your solar cells.

Wire strippers:

Wire strippers can be found at most hardware stores.






Step 1: Cut your solar cell material into a 6″x6″ square.

Step 2: On the back of the solar cell material, using a pencil and ruler, lightly draw a 3″x3″ square in the center of the 6″x6″ piece.

Step 3: Cut out the 3″x3″ square you just drew.

Step 4: Take your copper wire and cut it into four 6″ pieces.

Step 5: Find the center of each side of the 3″x3″ piece of solar cell material and mark it with a pencil.

Step 6: Place one end of a copper wire on each of the pencil marks, making sure that the wires are evenly spaced.

Step 7: Using your soldering iron and tin solder, carefully soldered the wires onto the solar cell material. Be sure to add a small amount of flux to the joint before soldering to ensure a good connection.

Step 8: Once the wires are soldered on, turn the solar cell material over so that the soldered side is face down.

Step 9: Using your scissors, carefully trim the excess wire from each joint.

Step 10: Now you will need to connect the four wires together in series. To do this, take two of the wires and twist them together. Then, using your soldering iron and tin solder, solder the twisted wires together. Repeat this step for the remaining two wires.

Step 11: Once all four wires are connected in series, you will need to connect the positive wire to the negative wire to create a circuit. To do this, twist the positive wire and the negative wire together and then solder the twisted wires together.

Step 12: Your solar cell is now complete! To test it, use your multimeter to measure the voltage across the positive and negative terminals. You should see a reading of around 0.5 volts. If you do not see a voltage reading, check your connections to make sure they are all secure.

Now that you have your solar cell, you can use it to power any number of small electronic devices! Have fun and be creative!

In general, it is much harder to produce a solar cell that produces energy equally as a professionally-produced solar cell. However, with some research and experimentation, it may be possible to create a solar cell that is at least somewhat comparable in efficiency. 

If you are interested in trying to make your own solar cell, it is important to consult with experts and do plenty of research beforehand. This way, you can be sure that you are taking the necessary precautions and using the best possible materials. Good luck with your projects!